Despite some considerable differences between the mentioned buildings, there are numerous similarities as well

Despite some considerable differences between the mentioned buildings, there are numerous similarities as well

This system is often informally referred to as the Great Firewall of China. There are companies that assist with internet censorship in China regardless if they’re outside of this country and do not have to comply with the censorship at all. Internet traffic is filtered in and out of the country. Its features include DNS hijacking, IP blocking, content filtering, and keyword filtering. It is fair to say that the system of Internet filtering in China is the most powerful, sophisticated, facilitated, and extensive in the whole world (Deva 257).

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China has a large number of imprisoned journalists, which shows that censorship is a rather serious matter in the country. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has one of the most restrictive systems of Internet censorship policies. Any website that holds information about a banned spiritual movement called Falun Dong is immediately banned. The same fate awaits all web pages that tell about Dalai Lama or Tiananmen Square protestors. China had great problems with Google because of the censorship issue. Google refused to cooperate with the country as long as it continued filtering results of the Google search. Gmail addresses of users from China suffered numerous cyber-attacks that attempted to attack human rights. However, China demands that those who cooperate with the country have to follow its laws. Consequently, Google search services have been closed in China while the search engine in Hong Kong has taken upon itself all users because this way there is no censorship. Even though technically there is no violation of the law, government officials are unhappy with such a shift while the conflict is likely to complicate later on.123helpme.me

Some people believe that if Google were present in the country, it could cause weakening of the government’s strength. People would have access to more info. However, every Chinese web site hires specialists who observe and control content so that it complies with the policy of the government. Earlier, the Chinese government required that “Green Dam-Youth Escort” software program had to be installed on any new computer made in the country. Basically, the program would record every move of the user, which met strong indignation abroad; this is the reason, the enforcement of this rule has been delayed. Originally, the campaign of government censors submitted that their main priorities were decency and morals. In practice, 250 blogs and nearly 2,000 sites were closed. Among them were message groups, forums, and text messages that discussed different touchy issues such as politics. In China, bloggers are extremely popular and their community grows rapidly. In 2009, there were 70 million bloggers in the country; the amount of Internet users exceeded the number of 300 million people back in 2009 as well. These numbers are the largest in the world. Obviously, China needs to receive information of different kind from all over the world in order to improve and develop its economy. Ironically, it continues blocking more and more channels of vital information because of the censorship (McCarthy 83). The more commercialized the country becomes, the greater the stress on the investigative reporting is. Ideally, the government has to separate itself from the issue of censorship completely. Once the government controls the Internet, it controls what information people get and how the info is handled. If every nation’s leader had the right to control what other people could see, democracy would disappear from the planet very quickly.

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In the United States of America, Internet censorship is not possible because it would violate freedom and basic human rights. People in america have to ensure that there will never be Internet censorship in the country because the violation of the freedom of speech would destroy basic principles of the USA. Still, in many countries such as Chile, England, Turkey, South Africa, China, Thailand, Singapore, and Australia, Internet censorship is a usual thing. People should be able to view whatever type of information they need to access as long as it does not harm anyone else. People who support Internet censorship suggest that all forms of communication should comply with strict regulations. One should always remember that offensive material he/she can accidentally find on the Internet might be offensive on purpose. Whenever anyone speaks their mind, they meet controversial opinions; this is the reason, it is important to evaluate possible users of the information before it gets into the Internet even if there is no censorship and no punishments for any type of information.123 essay writing China has shared its technology of monitoring and filtering with Zimbabwe. Other countries such as Yemen, Iran, and Tunisia try to render success of the Chinese censorship within the borders of their state. There are cases when café Internet surfers were fined because they accessed banned the web sites. In the Internet cafes of Burma, screens are monitored every five minutes. In most cases, government has easy access to data that Internet service providers collect. They create huge databases that include personal information. When censorship is enforced in a free society, it becomes more closed and less free. Cyberspace should enlarge freedom of expression for everyone rather than restricting it. If ideas get checked before they can be shared, there is no freedom of speech in the country.

It is impossible to regulate Internet the way any other medium is regulated because it is different in its form, purpose, and functioning. This unique means of communication still has to prove itself. There are no borders on the Internet; this is the reason, it cannot comply with rules of all countries where its users live. It is impossible to oversee rules of foreign countries for the sake of domestic regulations. Physical boundaries do not exist on the Internet and there is no easy way to determine which violations have to be prosecuted. Over 5 billion people are expected to get Internet access over the next decade. A lot of individuals, organizations, and authorities fight against censorship. This has led to emergence of the Internet freedom movement. If people make the most of opportunities and resources that are available, it is possible to overcome Internet censorship completely within a decade. There is no other option in order to make the next generation of Internet users from around the globe free.

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Mount Vernon, located in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the traditional buildings that follow the principles of the Picturesque by making a natural environment. the Picturesque building is created with the help of establishing irregular features of a symmetrical plan. The design of Mount Vernon comprised of a central block linked to two pavilions with quadrant passes that partly encircled by front yard. The design of the building was created in the sixteenth century by Andrea Palladio, A italian villa designer. The British breathed new life into this design in the eighteenth century, making use of it for creating British estates. The building was originally built by Washington’s father Augustine in 1735 (“Ten Facts about the Mansion”). Mount Vernon acquired its final shape in 1778 when the servants’ hall and kitchen were connected to the Mansion. Initially, the building was inherited by George Washington. Upon moving into the building, Washington made some changes, adding other structures and reorganizing the surrounding gardens. In fact, Washington wanted to rebuild Mount Vernon according to his preferences (“About Mount Vernon”). This is the reason he added wings to the ends while the double-height portico going along the façade. Additionally, the quadrant passes connecting the house were attached with two dependencies to make a Palladian façade of five parts (Picture 1).

There is no doubt that that the mentioned building portrays the exquisite aristocratic culture. On the one hand, it functions as a house. On the other hand, it represents the masterpiece of architecture. One should mention that this building is an ideal place to live in. There are numerous reasons behind this. Firstly, it is located in a picturesque landscape. Secondly, it has an enormous space to live in. Thirdly, it has a perfect building structure that enables its inhabitants to feel comfortable and cozy. One should admit that the designer wanted to combine simplicity and exquisite. At first sight, Mount Vernon is looked at as an outstanding piece of art. Then the viewer realizes that this might be something more than just art. It is the combination of beauty and convenience.

Creating the building, the designer wanted to preserve the feeling of home coziness and comfort as well. Functioning as a house, Mount Vernon had many owners each of them made a considerable contribution to its development (“About Mount Vernon”). Both the building while the designer were intoxicated by the British government. The government was astonished by the beauty of the house. Consequently, it wanted to use Mount Vernon as a perfect example of traditional architecture. George Washington was one of the owners of Mount Vernon. He made some reconstructions in order to make the building the perfect place to live in. George Washington was interested in hosting the mentioned house. There are numerous reasons behind it. Firstly, the building was located in the area with perfect and picturesque landscape. Secondly, it was a ideal place to live in and breed cattle as well. Thirdly, due to the structure of the house, many rooms were conveniently joined. One more important fact about Mount Vernon is that because of it huge shapes, there were rooms not only for owners but for servants as well. One may admit that Mount Vernon is considered the perfect example of traditional architecture.

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Nowadays, the contemporary world is influenced by an enormous influence of technology. All spheres of human life, namely education, health care, engineering, medicine, and art are affected. Consequently, architecture is not an exception. The main peculiarity of innovation is simpleness. Nevertheless, simpleness could be portrayed with the help of weird shapes and forms. The vivid example of such simpleness can be the house designed by the innovative designer Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright’s manner of designing is characterized by complete refusal of strict forms and shapes. He definitely tries to break the traditional buildings standards. The first building that was designed by Wright is Robert P. Paker House (Picture 2). This masterpiece of architecture is listed as an important property of the American government. In fact, Robert P. Parker House is one of the three buildings located in Oak Park. The house is known as Frank Lloyd Wright’s’ Bootleg House (“Robert P. Parker House”). The design of the house can belongs to innovative type of architecture. The building has irregular roof structure with high pitches. The Robert P. Parker House follows the tradition of geometric simplification. On the one hand, the house seems tiny enough for living. On the other hand, it is spacious inside. The remarkable feature of the house is its huge windows. The walls are divided in half with the help of windows. Furthermore, the fireplace is set in the centre of the house in order to supply two rooms, namely parlor while the dining room, with heating.

The Robert P. Parker House could be treated due to the fact first attempt to refuse the traditional model of architecture. It innovation is shown through the usage of sharp details. One may admit that the building looks differently. It represents a modern hectic pace of life. The building functions as a house. It is designed for family usage. The location of the fireplace proves the fact that it is a family house. Being located the building, fireplace helps to cut costs since it can heat the entire place. Moreover, the designer took into account the building would be used by the family, so he designed big windows. Wright wanted to make rooms brighter and more convenient to live in. Furthermore, he wanted to enhance the benefits of the surrounding landscape. Oak Park is a perfect place for living. It reminds about childhood and home coziness. That is why the designer tries to make the connection between nature and house with the help of big windows. Another important fact that ought to be mentioned, that is the owner of the house. The initial owner was Robert P. Parker, so he invested a ton of cash in building such a remarkable piece of art.

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Comparing two buildings, namely Mount Vernon while the Robert P. Parker House, one may admit that both designers have done a great job. They created two completely different types of houses, making them the considerable type of art. One may admit that the distinctions can be seen immediately. The first building is more complex as the second one is simple. The sizes of the houses differ completely. Mount Vernon is a huge aristocratic building, as the Robert P. Parker House is a small house for a city life. Speaking about shapes, Mount Vernon is more complex with traditional geometric proportions. The Robert P. Parker building has strict pitches and lack of geometric standards. Both buildings function as the house for residing in.

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Despite some considerable differences between the mentioned buildings, there are numerous similarities as well. The first one is connected with the location. The very first while the second buildings are located in the marvelous places, which makes them exceptional. The second similarity is the fact that both houses belong to a contributing property of America. The last resemblance is that both houses are perfect places for bringing up children and indulging the life. One should notice a important issue, that is the architecture value of the buildings. While designing the building the designers tried to appeal to viewers. Quite simply, they wanted their building to provoke certain feelings. This objective was completely achieved. Mount Vernon as well as the Robert P. Parker House remind individuals about the importance of family. The building emphasizes that the main purpose of the life has to be a family. That is why the ideal place to live in can be the mentioned buildings. One may state that architecture is not only about construction of buildings but it is also about feeling.

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In terms of its symbolism, “The Story of an Hour” is quite rich despite its concise length. The author’s purpose is to demonstrate how saturated life of a soul could be for a woman in contrast to joyless existence in social reality. One of the symbols is the heart and heart decease that Mrs. Mallard has in particular. Traditionally, heart embodies home for feelings and emotions, as well as for love and human spirit. The fact that Mrs Mallard has heart trouble symbolizes the idea that her emotions and her spirit are oppressed, that they cannot function healthily. Such type of emotional illness is caused by unhappy marriage, which confines the woman rather than letting her grow. Another important symbol in the story is the window, which embodies the woman’s hope, her chance to escape from her prison into the larger and brighter world. It is also a boundary that separates her from what she could be, a happy and realized woman. Besides, it is her resource that feeds her: “she was drinking in a very elixir of life through that open window”(Chopin).

The use of metaphors and simile in “The Story of an Hour” is also worth attention. It is important to note that the author’s aim is to contrast Mrs. Mallard’s dull existence to the brightness of the large world that is behind her window. This is why, when describing nature, she often resorts to making it appear alive: “The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares”(Chopin). At the same time, as the author primarily targets description of the character’s inner life, she uses simile and metaphor to create this description vivid and impressive. For example, she does not use exact words that denote emotions or state but rather characterizes them indirectly, allowing the readers elicit what the heroine feels, thus the following simile reveals that: “a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams”( Chopin). The transformation of her emotions is evident throughout the text, when she discovers the potential of her freedom, so this is put metaphorically in the following way: “Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her” (Chopin).

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The unexpected ending of the story is worth a separate discussion. If it is described in one phrase, the finale could be named “the break of hopes”. It is quite unexpected for Mrs. Mallard to feel joy and relief after finding out that her husband is dead but it takes her just an hour to plunge into a new state of freedom. This is the reason it comes as a shock to her that her husband is alive, which means that there is no hope of liberation: in the society of her time women in fact have no other way of self-realization. It is quite sad and symbolic that the heroine’s death is caused by this unbearable situation: “When the doctors came, they said she had died of heart disease – for the joy that kills” (Chopin). There is a bitter irony in the statement, which reveals the idea that no person around her actually knew what her concerns were and what person she was inside in contrast to her usual image among other people, including her husband.

In its turn, the story “Desiree’s Baby” is quite rich in symbolism, which reflects the author’s manner to leave the message between the lines instead of to put it into words explicitly. Thus, one of the key symbols is a stone pillar, that is closely connected to Desiree’s personal history. It embodies her past, that is unknown, and in fact this pillar is the beginning of the known period of her life, because it is a milestone where Valmonde found her as a baby and took her home. It is also peculiar that it plays exactly the same role of the milestone years later, when Armand meets her: “It was no wonder, when she stood one day against the stone pillar in whose shadow she had lain asleep, eighteen years before, that Armand Aubigny riding by and seeing her there, had fallen in love with her” (Chopin).Thus, the stone pillar could be also the symbol of destiny that directs Desiree’s life. Speaking about symbolism, it should also be noted that the story is abundant in characters of mixed races, that is not accidental, as they imply that this theme is important before the secret of Armand’s mother is disclosed. Thus, the reader comes across several minor characters, all of them suggesting what future events will follow: “The yellow nurse woman sat beside a window fanning herself… One of La Blanche’s little quadroon boys – half naked too – stood fanning the child slowly with a fan of peacock feathers” (Chopin). So, seeing mixed-race people helps Desiree to discover that her baby is of mixed race too, which eventually frightens her and her husband. Armand is quite mad about his wife, because he believes that she is of African origin. Due to his own racist values he becomes hostile to his wife and excludes her of his life in the end. Bonfire is thus another symbol, which suggests his determination to get rid of the past. When making it, the man hopes to get rid of his memories and negative feelings. However, aimed to be an instrument of cleaning, the bonfire becomes the symbol of destruction. Everything is destroyed: the marriage, the past, the future, family bond, love and affection. Armand also destroys a part of his own history when burning his mother’s message to his father.

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When discussing metaphors and simile, it should be noted that they are not abundant because the author’s style in this particular story deals with more factual narration instead of with internal monologues. However, there are numerous examples of these speech figures, which are mostly associated with emphasizing the characters’ feelings: “Armand,” she called him, in a voice which need stabbed him” (Chopin). The passage suggests that despite Armand’s seeming coldness, he is still deeply hurt. “She was like a stone image: silent, white, motionless after she placed it there” ( Chopin). It is interesting, that this simile is related to the symbol of the stone pillar. However, in this case the stone suggests that Desiree is emotionally dead after Armand’s reaction.

Finally, it is worth discussing the end of the story, that is quite unexpected. In his fierce denial of possible African origin of Desiree, Armand discovers that his real mother was a black woman. Even then he is not ready to accept this fact and destroys the message that his mother published to his father. ”But above all,” she wrote, ”night and day, I thank the good God for having so arranged our lives that our dear Armand will never know that his mother, who adores him, belongs to the race that is cursed with the brand of slavery.”( Chopin). There is a bitter irony about the ending, which reveals an idea that a person could be blinded by his own prejudice, and he can become the focus of this prejudice too: in fact, Armand realizes that what he hates most is a part of him.

Overall, both stories focus on women’s oppression in the world that the author’s epoch created. Yet, “The Story of an Hour” mostly explores the theme of freedom and impossibility to fulfill it for a woman, while “Desiree’s Baby” raises the theme of race in the context of identity, or lack of identity. Both stories are symbolic, however “The Story of an Hour” is richer in terms of metaphors and simile because the narration is more emotional and more focused on the characters’ feelings. Finally, both stories have unexpected endings, which are unexpected for the heroes themselves. Lost expectations and revelation of truth are in fact the key aspects of these endings.

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Under the influence of morphine, the tone of smooth muscles of internal organs grows. There is an increase in the tone of sphincters of the gastrointestinal tract and the muscle tone of the antral part of the stomach. Peristalsis is weakened. There is also a muscle spasm of the biliary tract and sphincter of Oddi. Morphine increases the tone for the urethral sphincter. Under the influence of morphine, the secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract is inhibited. In connection with the stimulation of the antidiuretic hormone release, urination may reduce (Neal, 2012).

A characteristic feature of the action of morphine is the inhibition of respiratory center. Small doses cause increasing the depth of the respiratory movements. Large doses of morphine cause further reducing of the depth of breathing with the reduction of pulmonary ventilation. Toxic doses cause the appearance of periodic breathing such as Cheyne-Stokes respiration and subsequent stop of breathing.

After the oral intake, morphine is distributed in organs and tissues. When taking orally, morphine is not very effective due to low bioavailability – 24%. The morphine effect begins in 20-30 minutes after oral intake. The half-life of morphine is short and lasts from 2 to 7 hours. The volume of distribution of morphine is relatively large. It indicates the intensive absorption by tissues including skeletal muscles (Cannon, 2007).

The main pathway for the metabolic process of morphine is its glucuronidation occurring in liver and other organs. The major metabolites of morphine are morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. Morphine-6-glucuronide has pronounced to have analgesic properties. To some extent, it determines the analgesic effect of the drug. Basic metabolism of morphine occurs in liver. Liver failure has almost no effect on the processes of glucuronidation. Morphine is well tolerated by patients until the development of the state of precoma. Processes of excretion are not violated even in patients with renal failure. However, an active metabolite (morphine-6-glucuronide) could be cumulated with a decrease in renal excretory function. It causes the extension of action, sedation, and respiratory depression. There are several side effects of this analgesic: “The side effects of morphine that are most problematic include constipation, respiratory depression, sedation, and with some paths of administration, pruritus” (Stolerman, 2010, p. 80).

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Morphine is prescribed as a painkiller in injuries and various diseases accompanied by severe pain such as cancer and heart attack. It is also applied in the perioperative period, as well as in severe shortness of breath associated with heart failure. Morphine is usually not used for labor analgesia as it passes through the placenta and may cause respiratory depression in the newborn (Bruera & Portenoy, 2009).

Contraindications to the use of morphine include increased sensitivity to opioids, respiratory depression, CNS depression, convulsions, increased intracranial pressure, head injury, alcohol intoxication, asthma, cardiac arrhythmias, surgery on the biliary tract, and intake of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

Tramadol is a narcotic analgesic. It is a synthetic analog of opiates. According to Sinatra, Jahr, and Watkins-Pitchford, “Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic that has an amino-cyclohexanol structure similar to codeine” (2010, p. 137). In terms of chemical structure, tramadol is a derivative of phenanthrene. It is considered partial μ- agonist of opiate receptors. The experiment has revealed that naloxone inhibits analgesia by tramadol only partially. Serotonin receptor antagonists also reduce analgesia. The influence of the drug on the α2-adrenergic receptors which interact with opioids is possible as well. Apparently, due to the low affinity for μ-receptors, tramadol is considered the analgesic for the medium-strength action. It amounts about one-third of the analgesic potential of morphine. When taken orally, bioavailability of tramadol is about 70%. The analgesic effect develops within 15-30 minutes after intake of the drug and lasts for 3-5 hours. The half-life of tramadol is 6.3 hours. The effect of 1 mg/kg of tramadol is comparable to that of morphine at a dose of 1 mg/kg (Fishman, Ballantyne, & Rathmel, 2010).

Indications for the use of tramadol include pain syndrome of strong and average intensity of various etiologies, as well as chronic pain. Tramadol is also prescribed for the conduction of painful diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. It is used to relieve pain in myocardial infarction. Side effects of tramadol include heaviness in head, raised diaphoresis, mental confusion, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, vomiting, and drowsiness. Tramadol is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the active substance: tramadol hydrochloride or other components of the drug. It is also forbidden to use the drug in case of acute alcohol poisoning, with painkillers, sleeping pills, and psychotropic drugs.

The active ingredient of tramadol is connected with opiate receptors in the back parts of the spinal cord, the central regions of the intermediate mid-brain and causes a blockage of pain impulses. In parietal and frontal gyrus, tramadol reduces the excitability of pain center and removes the negative emotional coloring of pain.

It is forbidden to prescribe tramadol concurrently with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Tramadol can be used after fourteen days from the date of discontinuation of intake of MAO inhibitors. When using tramadol, there have not been noted respiratory depression effects. However, these phenomena are not excluded in case of drug overdose or simultaneous treatment with the drugs acting on the central nervous system.

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Both tramadol and morphine are narcotic analgesics. It means that by increasing the dose, they can cause dependence in a person. However, morphine is a natural analgesic and tramadol is an analgesic of a synthetic origin. According to McCuistion, Kee, and Hayes, “Morphine, a prototype opioid, is obtained from the sap of seed pods of the opium poppy plant” (2014, p. 358). Tramadol is an analgesic of central acting. “It is not derived from natural sources, nor is it chemically associated with opiates” (Apo-Tramadol SR Tablets). It is a nonselective pure agonist of opioid of mu-, delta-, and kappa receptors in the central nervous system with the highest affinity for mu-receptors. Structurally, tramadol contains nitrogen not in the piperidine cycle as in morphine, but in the form of a dimethylamino group (acyclic nitrogen) in the second position of the cyclohexane ring.

Morphine depresses respiration proportionally to the dose intake.