Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior

Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior

In addition, the writer has an insight within the context of a group, where people may prefer to tune in to each other to be able to relate well and interact efficiently. He also emphasizes in the requirement for good listening skills to be able to foster and sustain impeccable interpersonal relationships at school and beyond.

Response

This book takes me back once again to my years being a young adult, when I ended up being constantly in the defense when I spoke to my elders. In those days I felt like everybody was against me for whatever reason and each conversation could seem being a pending accusation. The Petersen’s text took me back once again to the time when I ended up being constantly finding myself at loggerheads with authorities, including my parents, teachers, as well as elder siblings and loved ones. It turns out that I got into each conversation with full stomach and flat head, therefore I never really comprehended exactly what every person had to express in my experience. It explains why I became especially regarded as a difficult individual with really little support from the ones that I expected to support me. Each time somebody tried to correct me about something I had done, i might start explaining my own side associated with story without really processing what they were attempting to tell me. This frequently frustrated the those who were attempting to make me a much better person by offering me an advice and correcting my mistakes.

From reading the book, in my opinion that the main reason for my being labeled as a hard person is that I became incorrigible. It came into being because a lot of people believed that I became perhaps not taking guidelines from others. My incapacity to alter for the greater is dependant on the actual fact that I spent all the time during conversations strategizing on how best to get free from confrontation, even if the talker is attempting to help me away. The actual fact that I did not listen signifies that generally I did not understand what these people were saying. My stomach ended up being constantly filled with frustration, fear and guilt for being wrong all the time. Now I understand that if I had taken just a few moments to hear what I ended up being being told then I might have avoided numerous confrontations that I now think were utterly unnecessary.

Expression

This book provides me an insight how to prevent having meaningless confrontations in the long run by simply hearing the other folks have to express instead of focusing so much on which i’d like to inform them. Previously, I acquired into conversations having a stomach filled with feelings and emotions that needed to be let out.https://123helpme.me/profile-essay/ I became not able to listen because I focused an excessive amount of on what I was going to say in reaction to whatever I was being told. Instead of having area within my head for processing the details that I became being provided by the talker, I had a set brain syndrome that impeded my power to realize concerns which were being relayed in my experience. Being a result, I became branded as the kid that never listens.

Petersen’s text enlightens me on how best to steer clear of the flat brain tango, which frequently creates the surroundings for confrontation that could otherwise be unnecessary. Instead of forcing individuals to tell me about their feelings, i’m now able to listen and realize these feelings in line with the things that these are typically ready to share. Rather than utilizing manipulation, i will now utilize my good listening skills to comprehend the interlocutor’s situation and connect with it carefully before speaking up. It will help me to prevent hurting others when they believe me making use of their problems and feelings.

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Another insight is in the need for hearing the relationships that I have with my loved ones, friends and workmates. Hearing somebody implies observing them and being able to relate with them in a manner that they’d find acceptable and relevant. It shows that listening is the key skill in looking towards better relationships all round, be they formal or casual.

Action

As a listener, i will say that I participate in the group of ritual listeners who stay quiet for as long as the interlocutor has no one thing to say but would otherwise be glad to generally share their own thoughts because soon as an opportunity comes up. It implies that i actually do not necessarily tune in to the talker within my conversations but instead I wait to them to pause or ask a question making sure that i will jump in with my very own viewpoint in the matter. Being a result, all the time that I spend being quiet throughout that conversation is spent strategizing on a comeback statement. My first plan of actions is to alter what I do when I am silent throughout a conversation. Instead of looking for loopholes within the talker’s argument making sure that i will insert my very own witty remarks, i am going to give attention to what they are actually saying making sure that i will consider their opinion and think about the subject from their perspective. While my thoughts seem like these are typically the most crucial in my experience, I have learnt that good conversation may be the one in which every party involved actually wins in that in the end there is an agreement in opinion.

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instead of being defensive and trying to establish that I am right and also the talker is wrong, I plan to give attention to understanding exactly what the talker is attempting to inform me and on having the ability to restate their concerns in my words prior to going ahead to speak out my opinion about them. It is necessary because I mostly find myself unable to respond accurately to a disagreement because I have absolutely no idea exactly what points the talker might have raised while I became absorbed in my thoughts buying a way to avoid it associated with confrontation. It is necessary for me to pay attention to having fruitful conversations, in which everyone else comes out pleased with the grade of conversation.https://123helpme.me/argumentative-essay/

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Order Essay using this Title by Shaw (1966) is really a book that describes the story of Stanley, a delinquent going right on through different phases of criminology, and his influences and experiences. This paper will examine crucial facets of Akers’ differential reinforcement theory included in social learning, theory, utilizing proof of Stanley’s values, attitudes and influences as presented in (Shaw, 1966). The integration of principles and the evidence from the book will give you a foundation for understanding the aspects of the theory in detail.

The Jack Roller

The roots of juvenile delinquency are a topic of numerous criminological scientific tests. explains a tale of Stanley, a juvenile delinquent, whom Clifford Shaw comes across during his interviews with juveniles. The book takes readers through various occasions that occurred in Stanley’s life from childhood to adulthood. The story introduces personal details that affect Stanley and the factors why he’s get involved in criminal activities. The influences of his environment, family history, and cognitive behavioral traits are also described within the book.

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Criminological Theory Discussion

The social learning theory states that learning is an element that depends upon individual’s cognitive and behavioral processes. They allow someone to master from others through modeling, observing and imitating. Ronald Akers believed that folks in society developed motivation to commit crimes for their associations (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). In this regard, people understand their criminal skills through personal interactions making use of their peers or others. Therefore, a deviant variety of behavior is learned through observing and modeling social factors from the social context perspective.

Akers’ social learning theory is dependent on several maxims, one of which advocates for vicarious reinforcement (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). It shows that individuals learn through observing other people’s behavior and are suffering from its consequences. Also, the theory is dependant on the principle of modeling, whereby individuals develop new behavioral tendencies from observing behavioral patterns of others in society. Reciprocal determinism is also crucial because it shows that someone is definitely an active recipient of valuable information. In this regard, people rely on their behavioral, cognitive and environmental stimuli that influence their actions within the long-run. Based on Cullen and Agnew (2003: 159), differential reinforcement enables visitors to sharpen their criminal skills.

Application of Akers’ Social Learning Theory to

Akers states that criminal behavior is learned through fitness, modeling, and imitation (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). In , Stanley describes his home environment being a basis for his deviant behavior. He explains, “My life ended up being full of sorrow and misery. The reason ended up being my stepmother, who nagged me, beat me, and drove me out of my very own home” (Shaw, 1966: 47). He continues to describe that the influence from his stepbrother and friends introduced him to your world of crime. These folks urged him to stealing. In addition, his stepmother also encouraged such activities. Therefore, observing his stepbrother and friends made Stanley model criminal behavioral patterns.

Environment stimuli also enhance criminal activities (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Growing up within an unstable environment whereby violence was a norm made him think that violence ended up being the easiest way of communicating. Therefore, he imitated his stepmother’s actions towards him. He also learned the act of stealing by imitating his older stepbrother and friends. He was conditioned for this behavior because of the attention he accorded them and his cognitive abilities that enhanced his survival.

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a crucial aspect in Akers’ social learning theory may be the rate of relapse or dependence on criminal behavior that folks acquire (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). When they understand different criminal activities, they perfect the art and be hooked on committing crimes. Stanley shows this addiction in . He becomes so hooked on the art of crime which makes friends utilizing the former delinquents and criminals. His friendship having a former inmate from Saint Charles makes him perfect those activities related to jack-rolling. Stanley justifies his actions after he had assaulted and robbed a gay man on the streets. He said, “He tried to ensnare me, and I figured I became straight to relieving him of his thirteen bucks” (Shaw, 1966: 86).

Akers also explains that the type and frequency of learning rely on the norms according to which these reinforcement elements are applied (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Even after his release from the detention center, Stanley found it hard to live life without crimes. His life beyond your institution failed to mirror the lessons learned at the detention home. Stanley failed to start to see the requirement for returning home after he’d been released. Therefore, he was used by a prostitute. His attempts to get factory jobs were futile for the reason that he had become hooked on the life of taking things and never having to work way too hard to get them. For Stanley, the temptation of having a quick dollar ended up being hard to resist (Shaw, 1966: 78).

Failing woefully to have a stable home had a significant influence on Stanley’s life. The possible lack of a stable home environment reinforced criminal activities he was used to, making them turn into a norm in his life (Cullen & Agnew, 2003: 201). explains just how Stanley found it effortless spending nights in alleys and vacant houses. In addition, he did not reside in foster houses assigned to him. All opportunities he’d of having a good home were ruined by his self-destruction activities like being violent or stealing.

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Stanley’s jack-rolling activities were impacted by his mental and cognitive problems accumulated since he was young (Shaw, 1966: 115). He said he lacked the influence of his dad in his life. “My dad ended up being gone all the time so when he was there he was drinking heavily” (Shaw, 1966: 61). The possible lack of a positive influence from his dad made him struggling with others in society. His behavioral tendencies made him incline to learning how exactly to commit crimes and perfect his jack-rolling activities. His life on West Madison Street ended up being an outlet for his thoughts, particularly the ones that he had experienced due to his father’s negative influences on him. He became really violent, targeting innocent victims, incapacitating them and stealing within the long haul (Shaw, 1966:116). At the age of fifteen, he enjoyed the influence of other delinquents in alleys because he longed for a dad influence on him. The streets reinforced his frequency of acquiring criminal behavior, as an crucial aspect in social learning theory (Cullen & Agnew, 2003).

Akers’ social learning theory strikes individuals who seem to have low self-esteem (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Stanley believed that people looked down on him. Therefore, he’d to construct a mental defense to protect him. Stanley’s involvement in criminal activities makes him think that he’s trapped in this kind of life and contains turn into a victim of different circumstances. “For the very first time in my life, I noticed that I became a criminal. I became one as I sat there and brooded. At first I became nearly afraid of myself, being such as a stranger to my own self” (Shaw, 1966: 103). When he’s become familiar with the life of crime, he finds himself valuable with other criminals. Criminal activities have grown to be his supply of self-esteem.

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Prediction

utilizing the logic of Akers’ differential reinforcement theory, in my opinion that Stanley continues living a life of crime. Stanley’s deviation to criminal activities is related to the differential reinforcement that has happened in his life. In this regard, the effectiveness of these elements makes me have confidence in the probability he will resort to criminal behavior. His association utilizing the people on West Madison Street can be grounds to lure him back to jack-rolling activities. The pleasure and confidence that Stanley derives from jack-rolling may also make him resorting to committing crimes.

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Order Essay using this Title provides an inner perspective to the life of Stanley and various problems he faced, making him a criminal. The book can be effective in providing a history of Stanley’s life that explains a few of his behavioral tendencies. Nonetheless, it does not explain exactly what the long run holds for Stanley, making readers form their conclusions. Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior. Nonetheless, it does not describe the impact of mental, physical and biological aspects of learning criminal behavior in society. Nonetheless, the most crucial aspect to just take from the book is the fact that crime is an induced activity. It may be easily controlled through effective mentorship programs, specifically for teenagers like Stanley, to stop the development of criminal activities later on. Book Review "Plagiarism Free costs From only 12,99$/page

Population

The country features a slightly higher amount of females than males. Associated with 55.91 million people, 28.53 million are ladies, and 4.47 (8%) are in least 60 years old, while 30.1% are young ones below 15 years (Stats SA, 2016). At the same time, life expectancy by mid-2016 ended up being 65.1 years for females and 59.7 years for males, with infant mortality rate of 33.7 per 1,000 live births; about 12.7% for the country’s population lived with HIV, representing an entire 7.03 million people (Stats SA, 2016). These demographic figures show that the health status associated with nation is at risk.

Government

The South African government is split into three governmental arms. The President may be the head associated with government, and he forms the professional arm together with the cabinet and deputy ministers ( Government of South Africa, n.d.b). The other two would be the legislative and the judicial arms respectively. The constitutional democracy rules it, utilizing the national, provincial, and municipality levels having their legal and executive authorities inside their spheres. The Ministry of Health carries away all government health functions in the united states.

Economy

The country enjoys a huge workforce between 15 and 64 years old. This accounts for a lot more than 65% associated with population with increased than 50 % of the workforce being 25 years and below (the planet Bank, 2015). Areas that power South Africa’s economy are agriculture, mining, manufacturing, construction, commerce, transport, and finance among many more. The planet Bank ranks South Africa as an upper middle-income country utilizing the second largest economy after Nigeria (SAinfo Reporter, 2015). In 2014, its GDP ended up being $350.1-billion sufficient reason for a per capita of $6 483 (SAinfo Reporter, 2015). Any such thing shows the way the African economic giant thrives when compared with other countries within the continent.

State of Health (Disease/Violence/Accidents)

The health status of individuals in South Africa is worse because numerous diseases along with other causes of death kill many people every year. The median time from enough time of HIV illness to death is 11.5 years for women and 10.5 years for males, as the death crude rate is down from that of 2002, that was 12.9 deaths per 1,000 visitors to 9.9 death per 1,000 in 2016 (Stats SA, 2016). This implies that HIV kills males faster than ladies, and even though mortality rate reduces, it is still high. Injuries cause a lot more than 60,000 deaths every year, with 46% being homicides, while self-inflicted and road traffic injuries take into account 9.1% and 26.7% of injury-related mortality respectively ( The planet Health Organization, n.d.). Therefore, homicides would be the leading reason for injury deaths in South Africa accompanied by road accidents. Nonetheless, HIV kills more individuals than all of the injuries combined. Other common health conditions that kill lots of people every year in the united states include malaria, respiratory infections, prematurity and birth asphyxia, diarrhea, congenital abnormalities, neonatal sepsis, and several non-communicable diseases in addition to cardiovascular conditions.

Culture/Traditional Medicine

Traditional medicine is really a deeply rooted on the list of South African population, especially the native blacks. It is the oldest kind of healthcare system in the united states, and contains existed as an ancient and culture-bound healing method for various diseases for most centuries (Abdullahi, 2011). Therefore, herbal supplements employed by conventional healers include herbs, finished natural items, containing areas of plants, plant materials as ingredients, and natural preparations. Also, the Southern Bantus of this African continent believe in the ancestors who direct and influence affairs associated with living, and ill health along with misfortunes is thought to come from ritual pollution, witchcraft, or ancestral wrath (Sobiecki, 2014). People also have confidence in curses once the reason for some problems caused on many people or their own families for their evil deeds. South Africans have two kinds of conventional health practitioners – the diviner (Zulu isangoma) and the herbalist (Zulu inyanga) (Sobiecki, 2014). Diviners are spiritual experts who talk to ancestral spirits to diagnose issues of the patients before counseling, instructing on ritual ceremonies, or prescribing natural medicine to treat the issue. Herbalists do not talk to the spirits to diagnose nevertheless they use herbal supplements to deal with ailments.

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Healthcare System and Delivery

The healthcare system of South Africa is composed of a big public sector, a little but fast-growing private sector, and lastly, the non-governmental (NGO) sector. Their state funds the public sector, with an increase of than 40% associated with health system expenditure coming from the national treasury, and 11% associated with entire government budget is allocated to health, which is a lot more than the 5% GDP recommendation associated with World Health Organization (Jobson, 2015). The explanation for such expenditures may be the significant burden posed by tuberculosis and HIV among other diseases. Also, the country experiences high degrees of poverty and unemployment, compelling the state to bear the responsibility of financing the health care system (Jobson, 2015). The private sector comprises of private health care practitioners, and NGO focus mostly on HIV and tuberculosis.

Government health-related agencies and health regulatory companies. The Ministry of Health of South Africa features a sole duty of regulating the healthiness of citizens. It really is aided by the legislative arm associated with government that formulates the rules, through which it operates, and the Medicines Control Council (MCC), a medicine regulatory body. The MCC applies criteria associated with Medicines and Related Substance ACT that governs functions of manufacturing, distribution, sale, and marketing (Medicines Control Council, n.d.). The Ministry of Health regulates all areas of health provision in the united states, including financing and ranking of health care facilities from the national to your neighborhood level ( Government of South Africa, n.d.a). Therefore, the MCC and the Ministry of Health would be the main government agencies influencing health care.

Healthcare personnel and hospitals. Although South Africa has many health care facilities, it is affected with acute shortage of both physicians and nurses. It offers 5,560 dentists and 38,236 health practitioners with 1 physician serving 4,219 people, meaning that 23.7 physicians serve 100,000 people (Jobson, 2015). Also, South Africa has 270,437 registered nurses, serving the populace of 55.91 million people, and therefore around 483.7 nurses serve 100,000 people (MedicalBrief, 2016). The nation has 4,200 public health facilities, 376 public hospitals, and 143 of these can be found in urban places, as the remaining ones have been in rural areas (Jobson, 2015). Therefore, South Africa is affected with a acute shortage of both physicians and nurses.

The nursing education system and accrediting companies. The South African Nursing Council has got the sole duty of accrediting nursing education institutions plus the provided training programs. South Africa has 129 public schools of nursing education and extra 101 from the private sector (South African Nursing Council, n.d.). The Council has accredited many institutions to offer nursing education from public and private universites and colleges. It further investigates and takes legal action against the non-accredited institutions of nursing.

Nursing associations. Nurses in South Africa can join various nurse professional companies. Based on Sigma Theta Tau Global (n.d.), the nation has two professional nursing associations that include the DENOSA (Democratic Nursing Organization of South Africa) and the South African Society of Occupational Health Nurse Practitioners. DENOSA may be the largest one, with increased than 84,000 member nurses; it had been produced in 1996 (DENOSA, n.d.). Other than bringing unity, DENOSA advocates the legal rights and welfare of nurses all over the country. South African nurses may also be users associated with Global Council of Nurses (ICN), in which DENOSA is definitely an influential member (ICN, 2015). In fact, South Africa hosted the 2016 Annual Meeting associated with the ICN.

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Health Priorities

Together with international companies, the government works hard to ensure that the health status associated with country is improved. Based on the Government of South Africa (n.d.a), the Department of Health has four priorities: increasing the life expectancy of individuals, reducing maternal-child mortality, decreasing the responsibility of tuberculosis and combating HIV and AIDS, and strengthening the health system. Other companies also work hard to simply help the government achieve its health priorities, considering the fact that mortality rates in the united states are high, with many individuals managing HIV and AIDS, and tuberculosis. Mothers2mothers is an organization that trains South African mothers with HIV on how best to prevent maternal to youngster transmission of the illness in addition to how exactly to live healthy life (Rosenkranz, 2012). The Southern African AIDS Trust funds partners who work to lessen the prevalence of HIV and AIDS along with tuberculosis to improve programs of prevention, treatment, support, and impact mitigation and others (Rosenkranz, 2012). Therefore, the South African nation is dedicated to achieving its health priorities, utilizing the government and non-governmental companies taking the lead.

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Bugl, H. et al. (2007). DNA synthesis and biological safety. Nature Biotechnology, 25, 627-629.

The authors review the dominant legal concerns connected with safety problems in the region of DNA synthesis for commercial purposes. They’ve determined key motivation and maxims of manipulation of genetic material utilized in the united states. They explain that effective police force in this sphere includes interdicting, investigating, and deterring such criminal actions. Bugl et al. (2007) have determined five main goals that is met in working with this issue. The primary talents of the article include its high systematization value because well being a amount of particular suggestions about a DNA synthesis screening process. The main weakness is the possible lack of theoretical justification of reasons since the authors believe their method is the most effective from a practical perspective.

Heyman, J. (1999). Why interdiction? Immigration control at the United States-Mexico border. Regional Studies, 33(7), 619-630.

The writer examines the current regulations in the sphere for the US-Mexico border control. A number of contradictions and legal inefficiencies are specified. Heyman believes that political interest dominate in this sphere when compared with economic one. The best reason for these actions is opposing globalization in all its kinds. Heyman has provided deep ethnographic work that supports his hypotheses. The political control also directly affects particular technologies which can be applied during border control. The primary talents of the article would be the clear formulation associated with initial hypothesis and its empirical verification through available data. The main weaknesses include the absence of practical tips for improvement in addition to unsupported claim about long-term great things about globalization for both countries in mind.

Bayley, D. (2006). Police force and the rule of law: can there be a tradeoff? Criminology & Public Policy, 2(1), 133-154.

The author analyzes evidence-based arguments concerning the violation of police the rule-of-law maxims, as well as its influence on personal and collective interests. The study counters the position of numerous cops about the justification of cutting legal corners for the sake of common interests. Therefore, Bayley has specified seven reasons that show that violating these maxims contradicts the interests of police. The writer proposes to alter the dominant police culture in accordance having a large group of empirical evidences. The primary talents of the article include its critical assessment of various alternative hypotheses, and reliance on practical evidences to determine the truth. Its main weaknesses are focus on the narrow area without further elaboration for the legal system as a whole; also, author proposes to provide this research in further studies.

Steffen, G., & Candelaria, S. (2004). Currency seizures during interdiction investigation. Law & Order, 52(3), 40-47.

The authors review the dominant methods used in the process of currency seizure during interdiction investigation within the sphere of drug control. The authors examine the present law restrictions which exist regarding police force as officials should prove the existence of a criminal nexus. What’s needed of proper paperwork are inspected at length. All important elements should be correspondingly documented. The authors also examine the role of interview skills. The optimal packaging and transportation strategy is outlined. All decisions of currency seizures is supported by evidences and gathered information. The primary talents associated with article range from the accurate presentation of most formal needs within the sphere of currency seizure. The main weakness refers to your lack of legal analysis and corresponding suggestions.

Rider, B. (1996). The practical and legal aspects on interdicting the flow of dirty money. Journal of Financial Crime, 3(3), 234-253.

The writer examines the motivation of economic crimes including premeditation. Rider specifies some practical issues connected with difficulties of determining the sourced elements of getting wealth. Even though government along with other institutions implement numerous measures for creating obstacles for the money laundering, it really is extremely plausible that this issue will continue to exist later on because of strong incentives from possible criminals. Therefore, it really is extremely problematic to build up measures which will totally neutralize criminals’ incentives for the money laundering. The primary talents of the article range from the explanation of motivational facets of criminals’ actions, and specification of reasons of low efficiency of government policies in this field. The main weakness is the absence of a built-in approach towards working with this issue.

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Wilson, D., Walsh, W., & Kleuber, S. (2006). Trafficking in people: Training and services among US police force agencies. Police Practice & Research: a global Journal, 7(2), 149-160.

The authors explain the current serious public concerns regarding trafficking of women and young ones. They outline amount of federal policies which can be recently introduced by the federal government to be able to enhance the situation with individual trafficking. Wilson, Walsh, & Kleuber claim that local police force officers could be better when compared with federal agents. Their reasoning is the fact that they’re more aware associated with existing issues with prostitution and similar conditions which may be directly linked to human being trafficking. As a whole, the current system existing at the neighborhood level appears to be inefficient as the majority of correct actions are not taken. The primary talents of the article range from the look for improvement and providing particular and potentially efficient suggestions. The main weakness is the absence of proposals about the optimization of operations between federal and neighborhood agents.

Budowle, B. et al. (2007). Role of police force response and microbial forensics in investigation of bioterrorism. Croatian Health Journal, 48, 437-449.

The authors mention that the growing threats of bioterrorism force national governments to pay for additional focus on presenting new and more effective biosecurity measures. Budowle et al. propose to distribute optimally the primary duties among governments, the private, and public sectors. Three ways of validation are proposed to be able to investigate the present risks, and select the adequate responding strategy.